Tapioca is a starch extracted from the storage roots of the cassava plant (Manihot esculenta) obtained naturally through extraction from the grain or root of cassava, a root vegetable. It is often commercially sold in the form of a dry powder and its grade varies based on the type of application it is being used for. However, often it is used in the food industry due to the lack of certain properties that are needed in other industries.
This species is native to the north region and central-west region of Brazil, but its use spread throughout South America. The plant was carried by Portuguese and Spanish explorers to most of the West Indies and Africa and Asia. It is a perennial shrub adapted to the hot conditions of tropical lowlands. Cassava copes better with poor soils than many other food plants. Although tapioca is a staple food for millions of people in tropical countries, it provides only carbohydrate food value, and is low in protein, vitamins and minerals. In other countries, it is used as a thickening agent in various manufactured foods.